Las Abejasor "The Bees," is a Christian pacifist civil El reino de los chiflados latino dating group of Tzotzil Maya formed in ChenalhoChiapas in following a familial property dispute that left one person killed.
When members of the community took the injured man to the nearest town for medical attention, they were accused of attacking him themselves and jailed. Along the way, Christian pacifists in other villages joined the group, which is dedicated to peace, justice, and anti-neoliberalism.
Las Abejas freed their companions and grew as an organization. They paid a high price for their support, when on December 22,45 of their members were massacred while praying in a church, in what has come to be known as the Acteal Massacre.
The catalyst for the formation of Las Abejas was a land dispute that occurred inbut the roots of the organization go back to the work of the progressive El reino de los chiflados latino dating Catholic Church in Chiapas, particularly under the leadership of Bishop Samuel Ruiz. The Catholic Church and its pastoral workers, "El reino de los chiflados latino dating" Bishop Ruiz's leadership, began to focus El reino de los chiflados latino dating defending the dignity of the poor, with an emphasis on encouraging peasants to find in the Bible a message of liberation from oppression.
The pastoral workers introduced the language of human rights as a way to denounce what many saw as systems of oppression. Las Abejas also began in a distinct political context. Chenalho, the municipality where Las Abejas was formed, had long been a stronghold of the Institutional Revolutionary Party Partido Revolucionario Institucional, or PRIbut economic difficulties in the s and even more so in the s gave other political parties the opportunity to strengthen.
Several peasant organizations, some allied with particular political parties, also formed during this time. Several events in the months preceding the formation of Las Abejas were also important. The march, which began on March 7,was to protest government corruption, political repression, and cuts in spending in rural areas that affected indigenous populations.
A second march, from various indigenous areas to San Cristobal de Las Casas, occurred on October 12,attracting as many as 10, participants concerned about indigenous rights. Protesters toppled a statue of Diego de Mazariegos, the Spanish conquistador who had founded the colonial city.
Beyond the many participants in the two marches, likely including many from Chenalho, the attention which the marches attracted led many indigenous people to consider the power of nonviolent protest for indigenous rights. Las Abejas emerged in this setting in response to a dispute over a hectare plot of land in Tz'anhem-Bolom, near the town of Tzajal-ch'en in the municipality of Chenalho, Chiapas.
According to researcher Christine Kovic, the original owner of the property is unclear. Some say that the land was communally-owned and farmed, while others say it was private property, jointly held by the earlier owner's
El reino de los chiflados latino dating children: Catarina, Agustin, and Maria Hernandez Lopez. The disagreement arose at least in part because Agustin Hernandez Lopez did not want to share the inherited land with his two sisters.
The community of Tz'anhem-Bolom considered the dispute and ordered that the three siblings share the land equally. Agustin, who did not agree with their decision, instead "kept 60 hectares for himself and gave the 60 remaining hectares to his political supporters in a number of Chenalho hamlets rather than to his sisters.
Others people insisted upon a nonviolence.
This group, representing 22 different communities and committed to dialogue and nonviolence, formed Las Abejas on December 9,as an independent organization under the auspices of the Society of Coffee Producers of Tzajal-ch'en. The name "Las Abejas" Spanish for "the bees" was chosen, according to one member of the organization, because "like the bees we want to build our houses together, to collectively "El reino de los chiflados latino dating" and enjoy the fruit of our work.
We want to produce 'honey' but also to share with anyone who needs it know that, like the little bees, the work is slow but the result is sure because it is collective. Our struggle is like a bee that pricks, that is our resistance, but it's non-violent. The very next day, on December 10,violence escalated. Some residents of Tzajal-ch'en contacted the PRI-affiliated municipal authorities in Chenalho to request an ambulance so as to transport the wounded men to the hospital in San Cristobal de las Casas.
When the men trying to help the injured reached the road, they were met not by El reino de los chiflados latino dating ambulance but the police, who arrested five of the men without warrant. The municipal authorities accused the five men of having participated in
El reino de los chiflados latino dating attacks and they were brought to the Centro de Readaptacion Social 5 jail in San Cristobal de las Casas.
The members of the newly formed Las Abejas were very upset by what they considered to be the unjust detention of these individuals. Their complaints to the municipal authorities proved futile. Frustrated by the injustices committed by the municipal authorities, the members of Las Abejas organized a kilometer march to San Cristobal de las Casas on December 21,where they staged a sit-in in front of San Cristobal's cathedral to protest the violence and the unjust arrests.
While most scholars, and, based on their research, members of Las Abejas themselves seem to generally agree that the organization was officially founded in December as the result of the land dispute described above, the organization may have existed in some form a year earlier.
According to the SIPAZ interview, the group "made a pilgrimage with music, fireworks, and prayers" and "issued several bulletins and magazines" in Chenalho. Las Abejas is a Christian organization, with faith central to the organizational identity. The queen signifies the Kingdom of God The queen, God, wants neither injustice nor violence nor imprisonment but liberty for all human beings. While most members of Las Abejas identify themselves as Roman Catholicand the organization has been strongly influenced by Roman Catholic Bishop of Chiapas Samuel Ruizthere are members of several different religious traditions included as members of Las Abejas.
About five percent of Las Abejas are Presbyterians and about ten percent are costumbristas, individuals baptized as Catholics but who only follow traditional Mayan religious practices. According to Marco Tavanti, "inclusion of different religious denominations and experiences is one of the specific aspects of Las Abejas religious identity.
Las El reino de los chiflados latino dating is firmly committed to prayer, and their decisions are generally made after a great deal of prayer and fasting.
For example, when Pablo Romo, a Catholic priest working for the Fray Bartolome de Las Casas Human Rights Center, visited Las Abejas shortly after the illegal arrests that occurred inhe asked how he could help, expecting that he might use his title and position to help in writing a letter or informing international human rights organizations of the situation.
The response from Las Abejas surprised him: For Las Abejas, public prayers, fasting, and processions are "nonviolent means to seek social change. Las Abejas also places a strong emphasis on reading and reflecting upon the Bible the Palabra de Dios, or the Word of God, as they refer to it.
The Christianity practiced by most of Las Abejas is strongly influenced by indigenous theology. Following the leading of Bishop Samuel Ruizthe Catholic Church in Chenalho and elsewhere in Chiapas has sought to inculturate the Roman Catholic faith into the indigenous context.
A Tztotzil Catholic priest explains that "indigenous theology always involves a certain degree of syncretism between popular indigenous Mayan religion with Christian rituals and beliefs. The "El reino de los chiflados latino dating" of the gospel is therefore a dialogue and an encounter between two religions and cultural systems.
While adapting many traditional indigenous customs, Las Abejas have specifically rejected other customs based upon their religious commitments.
For example, Las Abejas forbids the consumption of alcohol, even though this is an important element of some Mayan religious ceremonies.
El reino de los chiflados latino dating where Las Abejas' religious identity has led them in ways counter to traditional practices has been in empowering women. Particularly in light of violent massacre in Acteal inthe spirituality of Las Abejas has directed them toward forgiveness and reconciliation, while not withdrawing their demands for justice.
In general, the members of Las Abejas have followed the lead of Bishop Samuel Ruiz, who at the funeral of those killed in the massacre encouraged Las Abejas "that they should not seek vengeance, but that Christianity offers forgiveness as the path of peace. Las Abejas, since its founding, has been focused on denouncing unjust governmental activities "El reino de los chiflados latino dating" demanding justice and human rights for indigenous people; as such, it is inherently involved in politics.
The political ideology of Las Abejas, which is connected to its religious identity, is opposed to neoliberalismwhich they believe keeps them economically oppressed, and militarism. The resistance of Las Abejas is characterized by nonviolencewhich distinguishes it from other groups, particularly the EZLNwhich have used armed revolution as a means to obtain their demands. Much of the advocacy of Las Abejas has focused on their right to continue their agricultural work, which they feel has been threatened by national policies and by international trade agreements.
El reino de los chiflados latino dating
Las Abejas was founded to be an independent voice for dialogue, in response to violence and unfair detentions by the PRI-dominated municipal government its supporters. Las Abejas have sometimes been accused of being a part of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation EZLNbut they have always maintained their independence, saying that while they agree with much of the ideology of the EZLN in support of indigenous rights and opposed to neoliberalism and imperialismthey oppose their violent methods.
Since they refuse to fully identify with the Zapatistas, however, Las Abejas have sometimes been viewed suspiciously and harassed by the EZLN. After the Zapatista Revolution was declared on January 1,the Mexican military established a strong presence throughout the region "in order to neutralize and, if possible, destroy the EZLN.
Acteal, a town in the municipality of Chenalho that was the site of a massacre of 45 members of Las Abejas inwas particularly affected by the tension between the Zapatistas and the PRI-affiliated paramilitary groups.
The area dominated by the Zapatistaswhich they consider to be an autonomous community, is known as Acteal "El reino de los chiflados latino dating," or Lower Acteal.
Members of Las Abejas occupy a third area of Acteal, in between the other two; the organization "has identified this geographic position as a reflection of their mission of intermediation and identity as nonviolent peacemakers.
As a result, Las Abejas "were pressured and harassed from both Zapatista and Priista sides. The tension between the Zapatistas and the PRI-istas in Acteal intensified inwhen the Zapatistas took control of a sand mine in El reino de los chiflados latino dating that had previously benefited a PRI-affiliated peasant organization. Las Abejas were expelled from several communities, including La Esperanza, Tzajalucum, and El reino de los chiflados latino dating, and many arrived in the area of Acteal dominated by Las Abejas, where the massacre would take place.
Las Abejas drew international attention when, on December 22,a paramilitary group killed 45 of its members who were praying in a chapel in the community of Acteal. Several had been participating in a fast to pray for peace, and they had come to break the fast.
They prayed until about According to witnesses, the shooters were identified as members of a PRI-affiliated paramilitary group known as mascara roja, or Red Mask, and were transported by Public Security Police pickup trucks.
According to researcher Alejandro Nadal, who was in Chiapas at the time of the massacre.
The attack started from below the lower embankment, with the first shots fired at the makeshift church. In the commotion that followed, men, women, and children tried to escape.
Some stumbled down into the ravine through thick foliage. Three men hid in a small crevasse. A large group El reino de los chiflados latino dating together against a furrow on one side of the embankment, with nowhere to go. The killers had time to position themselves and fire at will. In all, forty-five people were killed: When the governmental authorities finally arrived, more than six hours after the shooting began and five hours after they had been notified, they began, under orders from Governor Julio Cesar Ruiz Ferro, to remove the corpses and transport them to Tuxtla "El reino de los chiflados latino dating"the capital of Chiapas, for autopsies, despite strong objections by Las Abejas, the Catholic Church, and by the Fray Bartolome de Las Casas Human Rights Center, who thought that the scene should be preserved for a proper investigation.
The bodies were returned to Acteal a few days later for a Christmas Day funeral ceremony, presided over by Bishop Samuel Ruiz. Bishop Ruiz, profoundly affected by the massacre, told those at the funeral: And we ask our Father Jesus that you remain faithful in your hearts to his word, and that you do not stumble on the stone of temptation of hatred and violence. In response to international attention, the government of Mexico ordered an investigation into what had occurred at Acteal.
While committed to forgiveness, reconciliation, and nonviolence, Las "El reino de los chiflados latino dating" has also been clear in its demands for justice in light of the massacre at Acteal.
While many have been arrested in connection with the massacre, there are many others whom members of Las Abejas say were involved in the massacre who have not been brought to justice, including those whom they consider the intellectual masterminds of the massacre.
Even inat the tenth anniversary of the massacre, members of Las Abejas reported that some of the killers have not been brought to justice. Diego Perez Jimenez, then president of Las Abejas, expressed his frustration with those who claim that justice has already been served, or that some who have been prosecuted ought not to be imprisoned: That's the truth," he insists. I didn't kill a soul. The collaborative produces certified fair trade and organic coffees for export to the United States and Europe, with the aim of providing coffee producers many of whom are members of Las Abejas with a slightly higher wage than the international market might otherwise provide.
Las Abejas, or "The Bees," is a Christian pacifist civil society group of Tzotzil Maya formed in Chenalho, Chiapas in following a familial property dispute that left one person killed. They paid a high price for their support, when on December 22,45 of their members were massacred while praying in a church, in what has come to be kno Many suspect this affiliation as the reason for the attack, and government involvement or complicity.
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