Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through "College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms" amicus curiae brief.
The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade.
We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families.
Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. The American Sociological Association ASA filed an amicus curiae brief to the Supreme Court outlining social science research findings on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families on February 28, Brief for the American Sociological Association The ASA has a tradition of contributing the consensus on social science research findings to the legal system.
Below we provide our assessment of the literature that was used to assist in the preparation of the amicus brief. The ASA Council requested a balanced review of the current social science literature on the effects of same-sex parenting on child well-being. The aim of this review was to note that the strengths and weaknesses of prior research and offer a scientific assessment of what can and cannot be concluded from the College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms. The review we present here developed through work with the legal team and has been reorganized and modified for journal publication.
The ASA College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms to submit amicus briefs in state and circuit court cases. To date, the consensus in the social science literature is clear: Numerous credible and methodologically sound social science studies, including many drawing on nationally representative data, form the basis of this consensus.
These studies reveal that children raised in same-sex parent families fare just, as well as children raised in different-sex parent families across a wide spectrum of child well-being measures: This assessment of the literature is based on the social science research on child well-being in same-sex parent families over the last decade published work since The review is limited to studies based on U.
There have been many recent reviews of the literature e. Taken together, the studies included in this review represent a collection of extensive research and indicate that children under the age of 18 raised by same-sex parents fare, as well as their counterparts in different-sex families. The gold standard for
College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms research on American families is the use of nationally representative data Russell and Muraco Yet, as discussed below there are many valid reasons why nationally representative data may not be available to study same-sex parent families.
We discuss the handful of recent studies reporting that children fare worse on any measure of child well-being Allen et al. Table 1 provides a list of the studies used in the review of the literature as well as the updateand are organized alphabetically. We denote whether the studies are based on nationally representative data or convenience samples; the number of children in same-sex parent families; the age range of children; and type of same-sex parent family.
Each data source reflects family experiences across a unique time period. For example, the ECLS-K is a cohort designed to represent
College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms experiences of children who were in kindergarten and first grade in and and mid-adolescents in The Add Health references the experiences of teenagers 12—18 during the mids.
The Census presents the living circumstances of school-age children in The NFSS is not specific to an age group or time frame, and it is challenging to assess a broad College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms of ages and time periods. New data collections that reflect the current social, legal, and political environments are merited.
This recruitment strategy is considered acceptable given that few national surveys are large enough to include many children raised by same-sex parents. Relying on convenience samples means that the same-sex parents within these studies are not representative of all same-sex parents and represent only those who were targeted and agreed to participate, perhaps College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms of the most highly functioning families.
Yet, this approach does provide key insights into a group that is challenging to capture in large-scale surveys. As shown in Table 1the studies focusing on child well-being are based on a wide range of sample sizes. The sample sizes of same-sex parent families range from 14 Welsh to 3, Rosenfeld with studies including a median of 78 respondents and seven consisting of more than children from same-sex parent families.
The range of sample sizes often rests on the methodological approach. Small sample sizes in quantitative surveys can be problematic because they may College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms distinguishing between key sources of variation that differentiate same-sex parent families, such as gender of parent, biological relationship of children to parents, and the time a child has spent in a particular family. Another issue with small sample sizes is statistical inferences may be challenging or harder to detect and may be biased.
These issues are recognized by authors, and they at times speak to the range of effect sizes that are detectable with their approach. At the same time, smaller sample sizes in qualitative or observational data, as well as targeted surveys provide an in-depth assessment of specific family experiences that are unavailable in large-scale surveys.
The majority of these studies are cross-sectional rather College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms longitudinal. Longitudinal data collections permit temporal alignment of family experiences and child outcome indicators.
An advantage of longitudinal data is that causal inferences regarding how family circumstances shape child well-being can be established. However, longitudinal studies may suffer from issues of attrition and typically reference a specific cohort of respondents.
Most cross-sectional work relies on measurement of current family structure and current indicators of well-being e. As shown in Table 1 a wide variety of data collection strategies has been employed to study child well-being in same-sex parent families. The academic performance of children raised by same-sex parents is similar to that of children raised by different-sex parents.
Most of the nationally representative studies have examined educational outcomes, such as grade retention, math and reading scores, academic achievement, grade point average, trouble in school, educational attainment, and school connectedness. Rosenfeld relies on Census data to focus on grade retention among children living in stable same-sex and different-sex families.
He finds that overall grade retention of children is highest in different-sex married parent families and lower among same-sex couples, separated or divorced parents, cohabiting parents, or never-married parents. Yet, the differences are due to parental socioeconomic status and not due to relationship type. Research regarding grade retention utilizing Census data must limit their analyses to residentially stable families because retrospective family histories are not collected, making it impossible to assess family composition when the child was held back in school.
Thus, the Allen et al. Fedewa and Clark use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort ECLS-K and report no significant differences in terms of academic achievement for first grade children based on family living arrangements in kindergarten.
Additionally, assessments of math and reading achievement scores in the ECLS-K data are similar among children through 8th grade in same-sex parent families and divorced, stepparent, single parent, cohabiting, and widowed families Potter Children who experienced same-sex parent families initially score lower in reading and math scores than children from two biological married families. However, accounting for sociodemographic indicators explains the reading gap in same-sex and different-sex married parent families, and the association between family structure and math achievement is no longer statistically significant with the inclusion of number of family transitions Potter A similar set of results is observed among older children.
The scores of school connectedness or social integration are initially significantly greater in female same-sex couple families, but again this difference is explained by the parental socioeconomic status. Additionally, research based on small scale samples indicates similar cognitive development Lavner, Waterman and Peplau among children raised in same-sex and different-sex families.
Evidence from the series of Gartrell and colleagues papers using the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study NLLFS indicates similar educational outcomes among children who lived with same-sex lesbian parents compared with an age-matched representative sample of children Gartrell and Bos ; Gartrell et al.
A larger scale purposive sample of parents and children from same-sex parents Kosciw and Diaz indicates that gay and lesbian parents and children score at least as well on numerous indicators of educational achievement and involvement as parents and children reported in national studies. The social development of children raised by same-sex parents is similar to that of children raised by different-sex parents.
Fedewa and Clark rely on the ECLS-K data and report no significant differences in first grade social adjustment based on whether they were living with different-sex or same-sex parents in kindergarten.
Wainwright and Patterson find that the number, support, and quality of peer relationships are similar for teens living in female, same-sex couple families, and those living with different-sex parents. The one family type distinction found in female friend support College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms no longer statistically significant with the inclusion of sociodemographic indicators. Research based on the NLLFS indicates that adolescents of same-sex parents experienced fewer social problems than a nationally representative age-matched sample of American youths Gartrell and Bos In terms of psychological well-being, findings from nationally representative data indicate that adolescents in female, same-sex and different-sex couple families report similar scores on depressive symptoms and self-esteem Wainright et al.
The presence of higher levels of anxiety found among children in female, same-sex couples no longer exist once parental sociodemographic indicators were accounted for Wainright et al. Further contrasts between the NLLFS respondents and a matched sample with heterosexual parents indicate similar scores on positive aspects of psychological adjustment van Gelderen et al.
Based on evidence from nationally representative data, similar proportions of teenagers from female, same-sex couple and different-sex couple families have College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms a romantic relationship and sexual intercourse Patterson and Wainright Yet, at the bivariate level no controls for socioeconomic status contraceptive use is lower in same-sex parent families than reported by adolescents in the NSFG Gartrell et al.
In addition, none of the respondents in the NLLFS experienced physical or sexual abuse by
College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms parent or caregiver Gartrell et al. While the Regnerus ab studies include a measure of any childhood sexual victimization, there is no way to link this experience to the time spent in any particular family structure.
No simplistic conclusions about it ought to be discerned from the analyses. Wainright and Patterson find that in a nationally representative sample, adolescents living with female, same-sex parents fare similarly to their counterparts raised in different-sex parent families in terms of frequency of substance use tobacco, alcohol, marijuanaproblems with substance use, and delinquent behavior. Additional convenience samples indicate related findings; children in same-sex and different-sex parent families performed similarly on various behavioral indicators of child development contained in the CBCL Erich et al.
Even though a handful of studies does indicate that children fare worse on a few measures of child well-being Allen et al. Research conducted by Regnerus ab stands apart because it has been widely brought forth as evidence that children in same-sex parent families do not fare, as well as children in different-sex families.
Rosenfeld and Allen et al. By introducing residentially unstable households into analyses, Allen et al. This approach generates substantial bias because the living arrangements of when the child was held back in school cannot be established. As noted by Rosenfeldchildren come into same-sex parent families from a variety of situations, including orphanages, foster families, and divorced or separated heterosexual families.
Thus, children living with same-sex couple parents may start out with educational disadvantages that accrued before they came to be raised by same-sex couples. The Gartrell et al. However, both of these studies do not account for socioeconomic circumstances, which may explain the family type differences. Although the data used for the research performed by Regnerus ab are based on nationally representative data, the results from these studies are suspect.
The data possess critical flaws in "College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms" basic measurement of family structure and assessments of child outcomes. As quoted above Regnerus a himself claims these data are not to be used to assess the well-being of children or adolescents. The most fundamental shortcoming of this study
College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms that it does not examine children of parents raised in same-sex parent families.
The measurement of family structure in the Regnerus studies does not follow traditional conventions used in the literature on family structure and child well-being. Thus, adults were categorized as being raised by a same-sex parent regardless of whether they had ever even lived with this parent and his or her romantic partner.
Responding to this shortcoming, Regnerus, in the follow-up paper Regnerus bincluded a family category based on whether the respondent had spent time living with a mother who had a same-sex sexual partner. There were 85 respondents in this category of adults who had spent some of their childhood with their mother and her same-sex partner.
However, the core contrast group was children raised by completely stable intact at time of interview for 18—39 year olds different-sex parent familes. In other words, he removed all divorced, single, and stepparent families from the different-sex groups, leaving only stable, different-sex parent families as the comparison group.
This is an unusual strategy because it requires family stability even beyond childhood. Of those studies, 75 concluded that children of gay or lesbian parents fare no worse two parents of the same sex, in a stable, long-term relationship, actually raise the data to examine the school advancement of 3, children with same -sex parents, Scientific Consensus, the Law, and Same Sex Parenting Outcomes.
Keywords Same-sex parenting, research methods, lesbian parenting, LGBT issues, () High school graduation rates
College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms children of same-sex households.
. to lesbian couples: Communication competence College hookup gay parents statistics definitions terms long-term relationships.
problems among children with same-sex parents: Difference by definition. Every adopted child must come to terms with a sense of rejection from her. The limited research advocating childrearing by same-sex parents has severe.
Problems among Children with Same-Sex Parents: Difference by Definition,” British.
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Sexually transmitted science literature regarding babe well-being was being hand-me-down within these cases, and the American Sociological Pairing sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief.
The authors were tasked in the assistance of this proper brief by reviewing writings regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This exposition includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as in all probability as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: Our assessment of the brochures is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex mother families.
Differences that subsist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family perseverance. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new investigation on the well-being of children in same-sex procreator families. The American Sociological Association ASA filed an amicus curiae brief to the Supreme Court outlining social science research findings on the well-being of children in same-sex old lady families on February 28, Brief for the American Sociological Association The ASA has a lore of contributing the consensus on social science analyse findings to the rightful system.
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LGBT parenting refers to lesbian , gay , bisexual , and transgender LGBT people raising one or more children as parents or foster care parents. LGBT people can become parents through various means including current or former relationships, coparenting , adoption , donor insemination , reciprocal IVF , and surrogacy.
Scientific research indicates that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples. LGBT people can become parents through various means including current or former relationships, coparenting , adoption , foster care , donor insemination , reciprocal IVF , and surrogacy. Some children do not know they have an LGBT parent; coming out issues vary and some parents may never reveal to their children that they identify as LGBT.
Accordingly, how children respond to their LGBT parent s coming out has little to do with their sexual orientation or gender identification of choice, but rather with how either parent responds to acts of coming out; i.
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people are parents.
- Of those studies, 75 concluded that children of gay or lesbian parents fare no worse two parents of the same sex, in a stable, long-term relationship, actually raise the data to examine the school advancement of 3, children with same -sex parents, Scientific Consensus, the Law, and Same Sex Parenting Outcomes.
- A very large body of social science research going back decades has documented the vital and unique role of mothers and of fathers in childhood development.
- Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in in terms of child outcomes as a function of parental sexual orientation, such research on same-sex families, especially families with gay fathers and (Not exactly the unbiased scientific method that you learned about in high school.). Keywords Same-sex parenting, research methods, lesbian parenting, LGBT issues, () High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. .. to lesbian couples: Communication competence in long-term relationships. problems among children with same-sex parents: Difference by definition.
- LGBT parenting - Wikipedia
- According to conventional wisdom, research regarding outcomes for children of parents in same-sex relationships shows “no difference.” For example, the.
- into the experiences of same-sex parents and their children in the foreign and .. Heterosexual - this term refers to a person who is physically and emotionally .. Such definitions of what qualitative research is, sustain its validity of use for the. LGBT parenting refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people raising one or more children as parents or foster care parents. This includes: children raised by same-sex couples (same-sex parenting), Scientific research indicates that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than.
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Peer relations among adolescents with female same-sex parents. Patterson for the American Psychological Association found that the available data did not suggest higher rates of homosexuality among the children of lesbian or gay parents. Fedewa and Clark use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort ECLS-K and report no significant differences in terms of academic achievement for first grade children based on family living arrangements in kindergarten.
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