A sharp contrast exists between the treatment of homosexuality in Islamic law, on the one hand see ii. From the dawn of Persian poetry in the ninth century all through to the twentieth century, not only was homosexuality condoned in Persian poetry, but in fact homoeroticism formed almost the only amatory subject of Persian ghazals short sonnet-like lyrics and the main topic of much of Persian love poetry.
No sense of shame, no unease, no notion of concern for religious prohibition affects the exuberant descriptions of the male beloved or the passionate love displayed by the poets for him.
From early in Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity Abbasid period the caliphs instituted a tradition of forming army contingents composed of slaves, mostly taken as captives in the course of frontier wars and raids into Central Asia, the Caucasus, and India, among other regions. The preferred slaves were Turkic ones,
Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity for their handsome features, their valor, and their martial gifts. Young slaves also were bought by the wealthy for agricultural work, domestic chores, or running errands, and by rulers to serve at their courts and in their armies.
Those who were fit to fight were specially trained for military and were placed in the slave contingents of the army, as is abundantly evident from the sources and the poetry of the Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Seljuk periods. Some of them, if talented, were also taught other skills; for instance, they learned to play music and served as boon companions Yarshater,p.
The love poetry of these periods is generally addressed to such adolescent soldiers or pages, as the following examples demonstrate:. Put down your weapons boy! Selecting Turkish beauties for love affairs became so prevalent that in Persian poetry that Turk became a poetic synonym for a male beauty or the beloved:. William Jones has made the term familiar through his elegant but free translation of a ghazal of Hafez d. Of course there were slaves of other origins as well, e.
In later times, when political and social circumstances changed and slaves were not as readily available as during the frontier wars, boys in different walks of life become the targets of homoerotic love. No doubt a similar situation prevailed also in the earlier centuries, except that in court poetry of the time we hear mostly about Turkish military cadets.
It provides a good sampling of the themes employed by quatrain writers. Needless to say, the beloved is male. Of these, only a few can be said for certain to refer to a woman—i. Even if all of these quatrains were about women, they would constitute only 3 percent of a total of 4, quatrains—a negligible portion Yarshater,pp. The fact that in the poems written chiefly during the 10thth centuries the beloved is generally a boy and most often a soldier led to a series of images, similes, metaphors, motifs, themes, and attitudes which characterize the Persian lyric poetry written mostly in the form of the qasida and the ghazal.
The beloved is frequently depicted as armed with a sword or a bow or an unspecified weapon. Furthermore, his occasional drunkenness and even his obstreperousness are mentioned. A famous line by Hafez describing the beloved reads:.
As a result, many terms and expressions related to the battlefield, war, and armament have entered Persian lyric poetry and have served love metaphors, e. The beloved Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity described in Persian ghazals as an ideal beauty, a paragon of loveliness and charm, with no blemishes to mar his perfection.
He is indifferent to the solicitations of the lover, who constantly laments his separation from the inaccessible and unattainable object of his love. No one can resist his beauty; he is more liberal with his favors to his other admirers than the poor poet who is madly in love with him and ready to give up even his faith for a single favorable glance on the part of the beloved.
In later lyrics he is proud to be, not only the dust on his threshold, but even a Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity of his dog. Love on the part of the lover is generally motivated by physical beauty and strikes at once like a thunderbolt, a one-sided coup de foudre.
There is no mention of preliminary acquaintance or moral attractions leading to love. The beloved in Persian lyrics is hardly ever individualized. He is an abstract representation of perfect beauty. We never learn of any intimate or private circumstances of a love affair or special features of the beloved, as if the poet is in love with the image of an idealized beloved rather than with someone in the flesh.
The beloved does not differ from one poet to another; he represents a type, not an individual. There are several themes and motives in Persian lyrics that derive from the age, sex, and soldierly profession of the typical beloved. The following lines from Hafez are typical:. However, there are also a number of poems that warn the beloved about the ravages of a beard and even curse it because it ruins the delectability of the young face. Yet another theme is the traveling of the beloved and his being away from the lover, "Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity" the resultant yearning for his return.
A fairly frequent theme of the romances or anecdotes of later classical belles-lettres is the falling in love of a dervish with a handsome young prince. He even quotes "Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity" beloved as apologizing for his previous coquettish game-playing.
Yet one should not think that the climate of Persian ghazal is all grief, misery, and lament. In fact Persian ghazal is one long hymn to exaltation of love and beauty. The passion of love is sung in all its glory, and beauty is praised in its splendor; furthermore the rhythmic music of Persian poetry often imparts a merry flavor to the poems. In Persian love however, one can hardly find the kind of homosexual relationship that is understood in the modern West; love is a one-sided and asymmetrical affair.
As a rule, it is between an adult male and a boy or youth. Therefore, it should be characterized more properly as pedophilia, and its physical aspect as pederasty, rather than described under the more nebulous concept of homosexual love.
I love silver-bodied, ruby-lipped children.
What choices have I, if I should not fall in love with that child? He was overcome by wine, and his gaze remained fixed on the boy. An instructive description is found in a qasida by Iraj d. In a poem p. They each their arguments about the merits of their chosen ways, and the author, having heard their arguments, concludes that he should keep contact with Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity sexes and follow both schools mellat.
The literary reflection of homoerotic love is not confined to Persian poetry, but clear traces of it are found in prose as well, even though it is in poetry that it manifests itself most. In prose works, however, it is reflected mostly in anecdotes, and occasionally in didactic works. In satires of obscene nature, facetiae hazland invective poetry, however, the physical and pornographic aspects of sodomy and pederasty are openly referred to with bravado and described with clinical precision.
Zangi, who has been cited before, expounds on the legitimacy of love for a male beloved p. There were also Sufis who frowned upon revering and forming emotional bonds with pretty faces. As a typical Sufi poet Attar, in his narrative works, exalts earthly love as a prelude and a preparatory stage to spiritual love. From his anecdotes, it is clear that earthly love is never devoid of a spiritual aspect.
In love, the beloved becomes supreme; the lover lets himself be ruled by his beloved and sacrifices everything to his love. Even when the beloved is a slave, love annuls the status of bondage see Ritter, p. Attar exemplifies the total devotion of the lover to the beloved, in a number of love stories
Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity the beloved is mostly Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity youth.
For the origins of homoerotic love and its prevalence in Persia and elsewhere we do not have to go far. Perhaps the most sensible explanation is offered by Zangi, who, after relating the burning love of a dervish for a young prince, The public acceptance of homoerotic love in Persian literature, more particularly in Khorasan and Transoxiana during the 10thth centuries, in spite of strong religious prohibition in both pre-Islamic and Islamic Persia, however, requires an explanation.
Yet in New Persian poetry homoerotic love explodes in a surprising manner that attests to its wide currency and clear acceptability, particularly in court circles and among the court poets. Different views have been expressed as to the reasons for the exuberance of homosexual love in Khorasanian poetry. It should be noted that its popularity in Persian poetry
Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity be attributed to the influence of Arabic culture or poetry, since the pre-Islamic Arabic poetry is devoid of it, even though the practice was known in the Yemen.
There is a possibility that Greek colonies in northeastern Persia during the Hellenistic period had a share in removing or reducing the stigma of homosexual love and making it socially acceptable, whereas in southern Persia, a bastion of Zoroastrianism, and where a good deal of Zoroastrian writings originated, the situation was different.
Considering the fact that Manichean, and later Buddhist, monasteries spread in greater Khorasan and Transoxiana, it is perhaps not unreasonable to assume that such monasteries, occupied only by male members, gave rise, without social stigma, to the kind of emotional attachments that some of the Sufis have defended or advocated.
As our knowledge of the social history of Khorasan, Transoxiana, and Afghanistan prior to Islam is meager, such suggestions remain only speculative. How far these ties went and whether they led to physical exploitation of the amatory feelings is a moot point.
The Sufis explained such religiously suspect relationships by putting a Sufi interpretation on them. With the spread of pantheistic philosophy in Iran, a great many Sufis adhered to the notion that human beauty was an instance or the manifestation of divine beauty, or rather explained their proclivity to contemplate and pay homage to earthly beauty as having recourse to the limited and ephemeral in order to reach the absolute and ever lasting.
They argued that appreciating earthly beauty paved the way to the contemplation of divine beauty and served as a bridge to the love of the divine.
The neglect of, or rather, the omission of and silence about, the subject has been apparently due to a number of causes, including general currents of homophobia in both the West and modern Persia, aggravated perhaps by the translation and discussion of accounts of earlier European travelers and writers on Persia and the Middle East, who had emphasized the strong element of homoeroticism in the East.
Recently, however, the growing refusal of gays and lesbians to accept a clandestine existence and the resultant visibility of Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity culture has led some writers in the West Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity pay attention also to the widespread currency of pederasty in the Middle East.
Among these authors one may mention Minoo Southgate, pp. It is possible, though, that with the emergence of important gay and lesbian writers and poets and their translation into Persian, in addition to the spread of "Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity" liberal attitudes toward homosexuality in the West, exemplified by the drive towards gay marriages in the U. Gowharin, Tehran, ; English tr. Avery, as The Speech of the Birds ,Cambridge, Roscoe, New York,pp.
Radtke as The Ocean of the Soul. Carole Hillenbrand, Leiden,pp.
This article is available in print. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.
If you enter several tags, separate with commas. Topic select a topic The love poetry of these periods is generally addressed to such adolescent soldiers or pages, as the following examples demonstrate: The following line attests to the musical skill of the beloved: Selecting Turkish beauties for love affairs became so prevalent that in Persian poetry that Turk became a poetic synonym for a male beauty or the beloved: A famous line by Hafez describing the beloved reads: The following lines from Hafez are typical: In one ghazal he even says: Suzani warns the young beloved of the affliction of growing a beard: In order to secure a fatherly position over the boy, he goes so far as to say: In Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity following line Iraj obviously refers to a young lad, as the rest of the poem makes clear: December 15, Last Updated: March 23, This article is available in print.
The following quotes represent the APA's view of homosexuality: "Both how much a Christian upbringing negatively impacts lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) the hypothesis that hair whorl direction could be predictive of homosexuality.
Bernd Weber, a,* Christian Hoppe,a. Jennifer Faber handedness and scalp hair-whorl direction develop from a common genetic mechanism. clockwise and anti-clockwise hair-whorl directions, our study . homosexual men. J. Genet. a sharp contrast exists between the treatment of homosexuality in Islamic law and They are of musky facial hair, Hair whorl direction homosexuality in christianity of speech, with perfumed tresses. From six directions they blocked my way / The beauty spot, the ḵaṭṭ, the.
Well said that idol of a wine-serving Christian boy / Drink to the health of.
The Report is a collection of peer-reviewed articles from expert journals regarding homosexuality from the year onward. Included are some papers old to considered to be classic inspection. Included articles sweep from psychology, laddie development, mental and physical health studies.
A majority of the articles the authors conducted the original research presented. In addition, not too articles contain analyses of studies published by others.
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Mane whorl direction is a somatic be that is organized early during neurodevelopment and unlikely to be influenced past social factors. That study aimed to replicate a extensively reported association at hand A. Klar medially counterclockwise hair whorl direction and homosexuality in men, using more objective methodology.
The authors took digital photographs of parietal surface skin of one's teeth whorls from heterosexual men and sapphic men who were predominantly right-handed. These images were rated for clockwise and counterclockwise direction on which no more than 1 whisker whorl was up to date by 2 raters unaware of bodily orientation. The authors found no valuable difference between heterosexual and homosexual men in hair whorl direction, but the authors did replicate the fraternal confinement order effect more older brothers for the purpose homosexual men.
Loads of older sisters was positively correlated with counterclockwise locks whorls in heterosexual men.
Hair whorl direction and sexual orientation in human males.
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Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual men.
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Today's pachislo machines are minor extent rare from the queer fish game.
- HOMOSEXUALITY iii. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE – Encyclopaedia Iranica
- Bernd Weber, a,* Christian Hoppe,a. Jennifer Faber handedness and scalp hair-whorl direction develop from a common...
- Born this way? Part 1- What Nature Has to Say | Bible Faith Sexuality
Why does the word relationship only mean a romantic one?The following quotes represent the APA's view of homosexuality: "Both how much a Christian upbringing negatively impacts lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) the hypothesis that hair whorl direction could be predictive of homosexuality. dissensus exist among Christians on the meaning of the biblical texts that deal . In a community of believers a person of a homosexual sexual orientation finds it .. expression which then defeats sex as an act of enjoyment to be the crown of revolving a sinful woman who washes Jesus' feet with her hair at a meal..
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