Programs on commercial broadcast networks were less likely to have nonheterosexual content than those on cable networks, especially those on premium cable movie networks.
Implications of the continued lack of attention to sexual minorities are discussed for both heterosexual and nonheterosexual viewers. Sexual content of programming on American television has changed substantially since the medium was first invented more than 50 years ago. At its inception, television rarely presented sexual themes, and throughout the early decades of television, topics such as pregnancy, contraception, and other aspects of characters' sexuality were considered too sensitive to be portrayed or discussed in television shows.
One theme that has been especially ignored is the portrayal of sexual issues related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. Little quantitative research has been conducted to document gay issues and characters on television. Currently, most of what has been published about
Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship and its portrayals of sexual minority themes and characters comes from qualitative writings.
The purpose of this paper is to present quantitative data on sexual behavior and sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals across the and television seasons. The findings from this study provide empirical data about the prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual content across a broad range of television programming, as well as the frequency of such sexual content when it is presented. Beforealmost no gay characters could Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship found on television, and their relative absence from the screen continued until the s Wyatt, In recent years, the number of shows with leading or recurring gay characters has varied from 16 in the season to 29 in the season Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation, n.
Although these numbers represent an increase compared with the past, they are still quite small compared with the overall number of characters appearing on television shows broadcast each season. According to social cognitive theory Bandura,one important way in which television influences viewers is by providing vicarious experiences on which to model beliefs, attitudes, and behavior when real-life experiences are more limited.
Reliance on television shows for sexual scripts and television characters as models for behavior may
Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship particularly strong among youth, who may not have much first-hand experience with sexuality, yet are starting to solidify their sexual identities and become interested in sexual relationships Chapin, Yet, sexual minorities are often ignored by the mainstream media and treated as if they do not exist.
This is important because gay adolescents often cannot get information relevant to their sexual orientation from friends and family and may use television as a source of information about gay issues Paroski, Gross cites examples of gay characters who were rarely, if ever, shown in sexual or romantic contexts such as Sidney in Love SidneySteven Carrington in Dynastyand Marilyn McGrath in Heartbeat.
More recent examples include Matt Fielding in Melrose Placewhose sexual orientation was prominently featured in promotions before the show's premiere, and then rarely included in storylines for the first several seasons Wyatt, Until very recently, the two openly gay characters on NBC's currently popular prime-time series Will and Grace —Will and Jack—were rarely shown being physically affectionate with other men; however, the lead female character Grace, who is heterosexual, has often been shown in sexual situations with men.
Infrequent positive media portrayals of homosexuality may also influence the beliefs of heterosexuals. Regular television watching is proposed to create a shared set of conceptions and expectations about social reality among otherwise diverse viewers. Based on cultivation theory, some researchers have suggested that the lack of portrayals of homosexuality on television may influence the beliefs among heavy viewers that homosexuality is abnormal or extremely rare.
According to Grosstelevision is a major influence on the assumptions people have about members of minority groups such as gays, lesbians, and bisexuals because many viewers may have little personal experience with such individuals. In support of cultivation theory, Gross found that television viewing was related to stronger negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians, regardless of viewers' political beliefs. Despite the overwhelming heterosexuality of mainstream media representations, portrayals of gay and lesbian individuals on television have become somewhat more common since when Ellen became the first television show to have a gay leading character.
This increase can be seen in the introduction of gay characters on many shows such as Spin City, ER, Dawson's Creekand Buffy the Vampire Slayeras well as shows that focus on gay characters in leading roles such as Will and Grace and It's All Relative. In addition, cable stations have included shows such as Queer as Folk, Six Feet Underand Oz that depict gay characters in more complex plot lines and with more explicit sexual behaviors.
Although the presence of gay and lesbian characters may "Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship" increased recently on both commercial broadcast and cable networks, it is unclear how frequently television addresses the sexual issues and concerns of sexual minorities. As noted earlier, when gay and lesbian characters have been included in programs, they have often been portrayed in asexual contexts.
Additionally, most of what has been published to date about homosexuality and television Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship been qualitative including single-show case studiesfocusing on how specific programs have portrayed gay characters.
This paper focuses on variables assessing nonheterosexual content that were included as part of two larger content analyses examining sexual content more broadly on American television. Data from the and television seasons are used to answer questions about the prevalence and frequency of sexual behavior and sexual talk relating to nonheterosexuals.
Specifically, the data analyses address two broad research questions: A 3 composite week sampling plan was used to obtain two large annual random samples of television programs of greatest interest to adolescents and that were inclusive of most segments of the television industry.
Because the content analyses were part of a larger research project on television exposure and "Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship" sexuality, several networks were included because of their appeal to young audiences including UPN, which televises a substantial number of programs with young African American characters e. Composite week sampling designs have been used in previous content analysis studies to obtain representative samples of television programming Kunkel et al.
This sampling strategy involves randomly selecting days of the week or specific time slots for recording over several weeks to reduce potential bias that could be introduced if all taping were done within a single calendar week. Recording of the sample occurred primarily over a 7-week period in the fall each year. Because season premiere episodes are staggered throughout the month of September, we began taping once all nonsyndicated series were showing episodes from the current season.
Each week, three different days of the week were randomly selected for taping from all 11 stations, with all seven days of the week represented three times in the sample. The 8-hour time block for taping extended from 3: The process of recapturing missed episodes such as those for which the satellite signal was lost or the Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship was pre-empted by sporting or other special events continued throughout the winter months.
Not all material that was taped was coded. As our focus was on scripted programming, we excluded daily news broadcasts, game shows, sports shows and events, and paid programming, as well as all forms of commercials and other promotions e.
Although music videos were taped, they were coded and analyzed separately due to their unique characteristics and are not reported here.
In addition, shows that were incomplete because they started before 3: Finally, episode repeats were eliminated from the sample. The final sample for the season consisted of 1, unique program episodes, whereas the final sample for the season included 1, unique program episodes.
The sample for the second content analysis was somewhat larger than the first year's sample as we made a concerted effort in year 2 to ensure that Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship had three episodes of each nonsyndicated series. Despite strict adherence to the sampling plan, additional taping was required when, for example, new shows entered the fall lineup after the start of the new season to substitute for cancelled shows or when the day and time slot for a series was changed.
The codebook for the larger study was based substantially on the variables developed by Kunkel and colleagues, in their content analyses conducted for the Kaiser Family Foundation.
We created additional items, including those on same-sex sexual behavior and sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals. In contrast to Kunkel and colleagues, who used the scene as the primary unit of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for sexual content in 2-minute intervals of program Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship. Because scenes vary considerably in length and, thus, do not provide a constant unit of measure for making comparisons across programs, we used a standard coding unit based on time.
For purposes of this content analysis, sex was defined as any depiction of sexual activity, sexually suggestive behavior, or any talk about sexuality or sexual activity. To be conservative and avoid overcoding sexual content, messages about sex were differentiated from nonsexual messages related to romance and relationships, which were not coded. Every 2-minute interval that had been coded as containing at least one type of sexual activity tracked in the main coding task—flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual intercourse implied, sexual intercourse depicted, and other sexual behavior 2 —was also assessed for the presence of same-sex sexual behavior.
Each 2-minute interval that had been coded as containing at least one instance of talk from the sexual talk categories used in the main coding task e. Most often, such comments related to gays and lesbians, although occasionally they were associated with bisexuals.
Sexual comments involving gay and lesbian references can have purposes other than portraying the sexual concerns of these groups as use by straight characters to reaffirm their heterosexuality or to tease another person. For the first year's content analysis, 16 students 10 females, 6 males from local universities served as coders; in the second year, 13 coders 8 females, 5 males who were either current college students or recent graduates conducted the content coding.
Six of the coders worked on both content analyses. The phases of coder training included orientation to the coding task and codebook, large group coding of shows not in the sample with supervisors, and finally individual coding of practice shows where coders assessed shows individually and then discussed the results interval by interval in weekly group meetings.
Preliminary reliability analyses were conducted on data collected during the individual practice phase of training to determine when coders could proceed with the actual coding task.
The Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship analyses presented below, however, relate to assessments of coder agreement obtained from the coding of a subset of shows in the program samples. Coders watched sequential 2-minute intervals of program time and coded the presence or absence of sexual behavior and talk about sex related to nonheterosexuals.
As the coding was confined to program content
Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship excluded commercials and other promotions, coders used kitchen timers and the counters on the videocassette recorders to track 2-minute intervals of program time.
Coders recorded data on scannable forms for each interval as they viewed it. Although coders were allowed to carry information forward i. All opening credits and those credits accompanied by content from the current episode i.
After both coders' data had been recorded and analyzed for reliability purposes, the coders then met to resolve any discrepancies in the two sets of ratings and produce a final set of ratings for the show that was used in data analyses of the entire program sample. Assessment of reliability was conducted on an ongoing basis throughout the 4 to 5 months it took coders to complete the entire program sample each year. Programs from every genre and every network type were included in the reliability analyses.
Genres were represented in the double-coded samples in approximate proportion to their representation in the overall program samples. For purposes of reliability assessment, the number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode.
This summing resulted in converting nominal data i. The ICC is an assessment of the proportion of variance in the measures attributable to coder agreement corrected for chance. For interval data such as the frequency counts used here, the ICC is equivalent to Krippendorf's alpha Krippendorf, Both items used to assess the presence of nonheterosexual themes substantially exceeded this criterion.
The ICC for same-sex sexual behavior was. The ICC for talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues was. To answer the first set of research questions regarding the prevalence of nonheterosexual material on television, we used episode-level data e.
For the second set of research questions, we used only those shows that contained nonheterosexual sexual content and assessed their frequency across 2-minute intervals e. Significant omnibus F -tests were followed up with post hoc comparisons using Tamhane's T2 test, which does not assume equal cell size or equal variance, to identify significant differences across groups.
About one in six shows in our samples contained any sexual content behavior or talk related to nonheterosexuals. The slight increase in nonheterosexual sexual content from the season This difference was small, however, and the increases in the percentages of shows with same-sex sexual behavior 7. Table 1 displays the percentage of shows that contained any same-sex sexual behavior and any sexual talk related "Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship" nonheterosexuals by program genres, by type of network, and by time of day aired.
For network type, the 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: With respect to time of day broadcast, shows airing between 3: Percentages without subscripts were not significantly different from other percentages in that column. For the overall samples as well as for most genres, talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues was more prevalent than same-sex sexual behavior see Table 1.
In most cases, there was a high degree of correspondence between a genre's relative rankings for same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues. Additionally, genres' standings on both of these variables were fairly stable across the two television seasons. Three genres were consistently low in both forms of nonheterosexual sexual content: Therefore, although we include these latter two genres in the tables, we do not highlight the findings associated with them.
Across network types, we found similar patterns generally in nonheterosexual sexual between the two television seasons, with consistently lower percentages of shows on commercial broadcast networks containing same-sex sexual behavior and sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals and the highest percentages of shows with both types of content on premium cable movie networks.
Specifically, in both seasons, the percentages of shows with same-sex sexual behavior on commercial broadcast networks 3. Regarding non-heterosexual sexual talk, the percentages of shows on premium cable movie networks The late s saw a large boom in the teen drama subgenre, "Late 90s tv cartoons with homosexual relationship" which.
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