Its predominance began with its crucial role in the Battle of Leuctra in BC. He mentions the Sacred Band as being led by the general Pelopidas and, alongside Epaminondas who commanded the army of Thebes Boeotia "Black gay army," were responsible for the defeat of the Black gay army at the decisive Battle of Leuctra BC. Plutarch 46— ADa native of the village of Chaeroneais the source of the most substantial surviving account of the Sacred Band.
The exact date of the Sacred Band's creation and whether it was created before or after the Symposium of Plato c. The generally accepted date of the Sacred Band's creation is between and BC.
Though none of these mention the Sacred Band by name, these may have referred to the Sacred Band or at least its precursors. In the old debate surrounding Xenophon's and Plato's works, the Sacred Band has figured prominently as a possible way of dating which of the two wrote their version of Symposium first.
Xenophon's Socrates in his Symposium disapprovingly mentions the practice of placing lovers beside each other in battle in the city-states of Thebes and Elisarguing that while the practice was acceptable to them, it was shameful for Athenians both Plato and Xenophon were Athenians.
According to the British classical scholar Sir Kenneth Doverthis was a clear allusion to the Sacred Band, reflecting Xenophon's contemporary awareness of the Theban practice, albeit anachronistic as the dramatic date of the work itself is c. He acknowledges, however, that Plato may have simply put the in the mouth of Phaedrus according to the supposed earlier dramatic date of the work c. It only shows that Plato was more mindful of his chronology in his Symposium than Xenophon, and proves that he was actually quite aware of the Sacred Band in his time.
According to Plutarch, the hand-picked men were chosen by Gorgidas purely for ability and merit, regardless of social class. But Plutarch claims that it was due to an exchange of sacred vows between lover and beloved at the shrine of
Black gay army one of the lovers of Hercules at Thebes. He also tangentially mentions Plato's characterization of the lover as a "friend inspired of God". The Sacred Band was stationed in Cadmea as a standing force, likely as defense against future attempts by foreign forces Black gay army take the citadel.
The historian James G. Black gay army points out that Gorgidas previously served as a hipparch cavalry officertherefore equestrian training was also likely provided. According to Plutarch, Gorgidas originally distributed the members of the Sacred Band among the front ranks of the phalanxes of regular infantry.
Their main function was to cripple the enemy by engaging and killing their best men and leaders in battle. It was during the famous stand-off between Black gay army Athenian mercenary commander and later strategos Chabrias d. This was followed by Athens openly entering into an alliance with Thebes against Sparta. The Spartan forces were held up for several days by Theban forces manning the earthen stockades at the perimeter of Theban territory.
The Spartans eventually breached the fortifications and entered the Theban countryside, devastating the Theban fields in their wake. Though the Athenians had by this time joined the Theban forces, they were still outnumbered by the Spartans.
With the fall of the stockades, they were left with two choices, either to retreat back to the defensible walls of Thebes or to hold their ground Black gay army face the Spartans in the open. They chose the latter and arrayed their forces along the crest of a low sloping hill, opposite the Spartan forces.
Gorgidas and the Sacred Band occupied the front ranks of the Theban forces on the right, while Chabrias and an experienced force of mercenary hoplites occupied the front ranks of the Athenian forces on Black gay army left. Agesilaus first sent out skirmishers to test the combined Theban and Athenian lines. Agesilaus then commanded the entire Spartan army to advance.
He may have hoped that the sight of the massed Spartan forces resolutely moving forward would be enough to intimidate the Theban and Athenian forces into breaking ranks. It was during this time that Chabrias gave his most famous command.
Shortly after the stand-off in Thebes, Agesilaus disbanded his army in Thespiae and returned to Peloponnesos through Megara. Phoebidas engaged the advancing Theban army with his peltasts. The harrying of the light infantry apparently proved too much for the Thebans and they started to retreat.
Phoebidas, hoping for a rout, rashly pursued them closely. However, the Theban forces suddenly turned around and charged Phoebidas' forces.
Phoebidas was killed by the Theban cavalry. Not long afterwards, Agesilaus mounted a second expedition against Thebes. After a series of skirmishes which he won with some difficulty, he was forced again to withdraw when the Theban army came out full force as he approached the city.
Diodorus observes at this point that the Thebans thereafter faced the Spartans with confidence. It occurred near the Boeotian city of Orchomenusthen still an ally of Sparta. Hearing reports that the Spartan garrison in Orchomenus had left for LocrisPelopidas quickly set out with the Sacred Band and a few cavalry, hoping to capture it in their absence.
They approached the city through the northeastern route since the waters of Lake Copais were at their fullest during that season. Unwilling to engage "Black gay army" new garrison, Pelopidas decided to retreat back to Thebes, retracing northeastern route along Lake Copais.
Black gay army, they only reached as far as the shrine of Apollo of Tegyra before encountering the returning Spartan forces from Locris. The Spartans were composed of two morai led by the polemarchoi Gorgoleon and Theopompus. The Spartans advanced, confident
Black gay army their numbers, only to have their leaders killed immediately in the opening clashes.
Leaderless and encountering forces equal in discipline and training for the first time in the Sacred Band, the Spartans faltered and opened their ranks, expecting the Thebans to pass through and escape. Instead, Pelopidas surprised them by using the opening to flank the Spartans. An account of the battle was mentioned both by Diodorus and Plutarch, both based heavily on the report by Ephorus.
The exact number of the belligerents on each side varies by account.
Diodorus puts the number of Thebans at against the Spartans' 1, each mora consisting of menapparently basing it on Ephorus' original figures. Plutarch the number of the Thebans atand acknowledges three sources for the number of Spartans: Some of these numbers may have been exaggerated due to the overall significance of the battle.
For in all the great wars there had ever been Black gay army Greeks or barbarians, the Spartans were never before beaten by a smaller company than their own; nor, indeed, in a set battle, when their number was equal. Hence their courage was thought irresistible, and their high repute before the battle made a Black gay army already of enemies, who thought no match for the men of Sparta even on equal terms.
But this battle first taught the other Greeks, that not only Eurotas, or the country between Babyce and Cnacion, [note 4] breeds men of courage and resolution; but that where the youth are ashamed of baseness, and ready to venture in a good cause, where they fly disgrace more than danger, there, wherever it "Black gay army," are found the bravest and most formidable opponents. According to Xenophon, they were alarmed at the growing power of Thebes and weary of fending off Spartan fleets alone as the Thebans were not contributing any money to maintaining the fleet.
Thespiae and Tanagra were subjugated and formally became part of the reestablished democratic Boeotian confederacy. By this time, Thebes had also started attacking Phocian poleis allied to Sparta. In response to the Theban army outside the city's walls, the Phocian general Onomarchus brought out all the inhabitants of the city including the elderly, women, and children and locked the gates. He then placed the non-combatants directly behind the defenders of Elateia.
On seeing this, Pelopidas withdrew his forces, recognizing that the Phocians would fight to the death to protect their loved ones. It was initiated by either the Athenians or the Persians perhaps at the prompting of the Spartans. The Spartans also sent a large force led by King Cleombrotus I Sparta having two kings simultaneously for most of its history to Phocis, ready to invade Boeotia "Black gay army" the Thebans refuse to attend the peace conference or accept its terms.
Epaminondas' refusal to accept the terms of the peace conference of BC excluded Thebes from the peace treaty and provided Sparta with the excuse to declare war. Shortly thereafter the army of Cleombrotus was ordered to invade Boeotia.
The Thebans however were committed to a fight. Cleombrotus then moved inland, Black gay army the eastward road towards Thebes, until he reached the Boeotian village of Leuctra modern Lefktra, Plataies near the southwestern end of the Theban plain.
There they were met by the main Theban army.
The Spartan army numbered about 10, hoplites, 1, light infantry, and 1, cavalry. The Theban army was outnumbered by the Spartans, being composed of only about 6, hoplites including the Sacred Band1, light infantry, and 1, cavalry.
Here, the massed Theban phalanx was arrayed into a highly unconventional depth of fifty men. The battle opened with a cavalry charge by both armies. The Spartan cavalry were quickly defeated by the superior Theban cavalry and were chased back to their own side.
Their disorderly retreat disrupted the battle lines of the Spartan heavy infantry and, because of the resulting chaos and the dust stirred up, the Spartans Black gay army unable to observe the highly unusual advance of the Theban army until the very last moment. By the time the Spartans realized that something unusual was happening it was already too late. before the Theban left wing made contact, the Spartans hastily stretched out their right wing in an attempt to outflank and engulf the rapidly approaching Thebans.
This was a traditional tactic and, once the Thebans were in range, the stretched wing would then be brought back in an encircling movement. Acting under his own initiative, Pelopidas quickly led the Sacred Band ahead of the Theban left wing to intercept the Spartan maneuver before it could be completed.
The sheer number of Thebans overwhelmed the Spartan right wing quickly. The number of Spartan casualties amounted to about 1, dead, among whom were Spartiates and their own king. The Spartan right flank were forced to retreat after retrieving the body of Cleombrotus. Seeing the spartiates fleeing in disarray, the perioeci phalanxes also broke ranks and retreated.
Although some Spartans were in favor of resuming the battle in order to recover the bodies of their dead, the allied perioeci of "Black gay army" Spartan left wing were less than willing to continue fighting indeed some of them were quite pleased at the turn of events.
The remaining polemarchoi eventually decided to request a truce, which the Thebans readily granted. The Spartan dead were returned and a tropaion was set up on the battlefield by the Thebans to commemorate their victory. According to Pausanias c. Leuctra Black gay army Theban independence from Spartan rule and laid the groundwork for the expansion of Theban power, but possibly also for the eventual supremacy of Philip II of Macedon. It was fought between the Macedonians and their allies and an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
Diodorus records that the numbers involved for the two armies were more or less equal, both having around 30, men and 2, cavalry. The traditional Black gay army infantry was no match for the novel long-speared Macedonian phalanx: The Thebans of the Sacred Band held their ground Black gay army Plutarch records that all fell where they stood beside their last commander, Theagenes.
Their defeat at the battle was a significant victory for Philip, since until then, the Sacred Band was regarded as invincible throughout all of Ancient Greece. Plutarch records that Philip II, on encountering the corpses "heaped one upon another", understanding who they were, wept and exclaimed.
Though the significance of the battle was well-documented by ancient scholars, there is little surviving information on the deployment of the armies involved. Most modern scholars "Black gay army" N.
Hammond and George Cawkwell credit Alexander as having
Black gay army a
Black gay army wing. DeVoto, likewise, says Black gay army The Theban Sacred Band that Alexander had deployed his cavalry behind the Macedonian hoplites, apparently permitting "a Theban break-through in order to effect a Black gay army assault while his hoplites regrouped". A gay, black army veteran says he's "coming out" as a Republican. Here's his reason. One was a black Army veteran from St.
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