Email Phone Email required: Enter Characters from Left: Ink Dating is done in primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date Dating pen ink method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing.
Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The Dating pen ink step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations.
In order Dating pen ink do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured. Other times the results will disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink could have been made.
Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed next, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year. Manufacturers "Dating pen ink" two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations. Neither of these is currently being used. It should be noted that some ink manufacturers never placed any date tags in their inks.
This was to further the identification of inks using the standard ink library approach. To be covered further down this page. InFormulabs of Escondido, California inserted the first type of date tag in their ballpoint inks. This was a single tag was could be extracted with the ink, separated and analyzed with ultra-violet light.
For this reason this type of tag is commonly referred to as a florescent date tag. By the combination of Dating pen ink presence or absence of each tag either a specific year or a range of years could be established.
Dating pen ink procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is:. The comparison between the known tag and the questioned ink being examined should focus on whether the florescent compounds are the same color in the known and questioned. No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year. These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color film for presentation at a later time if required.
Color slide film has been shown to work well, especially since a print can be made directly from a Dating pen ink or used in a projector for presentation. The detection of these tags is complicated and requires expensive and rare scientific equipment.
Information on these tags is confidential and closely kept. This type of examination is very rarely to never used in actual casework currently. Ink dating — Alternate Method: Another method for dating inks using thin layer chromatography exists. The ink library approach, as it is commonly referred to, comprises the other portion of the static approach to ink age determination.
This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink. Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established.
This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written. The method by which questioned ink is compared to a standard reference ink library is as follows:. In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any "Dating pen ink" the standards in the library.
This is another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences that are attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations.
The best way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known to be different batches.
With inks available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare. Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification
Dating pen ink elimination should be demonstrable in some manner.
If the questioned ink Dating pen ink more than one of the possible library matches then any of the following may be used to further discriminate some or all of the possible matches from the Dating pen ink sample if necessary or desired:. The earliest date that the ink could have been available would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches.
If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library. The size of the reference library of the laboratory conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match.
The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is Dating pen ink either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.
The second option should not be confused with the same ink manufacturer producing the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens. Many other similar examples exist. It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i.
Obviously, no library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated. If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary.
Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important. In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular Dating pen ink, which are evident in the above TLC examinations. One example is, Dating pen ink approximately Bic added an additional bold blue dye to their blue ballpoint formulation. If an ink being examined contains this newer formulation with the additional blue band it could not have been "Dating pen ink" until in or after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya.
This addition was made sometime in There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be Dating pen ink to aid in examinations.
Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff. There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that Dating pen ink relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed.
The unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries. If the questioned entries were genuine and written on
Dating pen ink about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness.
However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations were used to write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment. One formulation was a blue ballpoint ink and the other was a reddish-brown ballpoint ink.
This grouping encompassed 53 entries over the four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another.
Based on this evidence it was concluded that "Dating pen ink" entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the same time or near the same time. The doctor denied writing these entries. A handwriting examination Dating pen ink conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter. A thin layer Dating pen ink examination was conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout Dating pen ink chart.
It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than any writing that was done elsewhere in the chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that were used for comparison purposes.
This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. Ink dating — third case example — In the third example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink. There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary.
A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book.
If similar ink was found elsewhere in the diary, a relative ink age comparison test could have been conducted to determine when the questioned entry was written. However, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a different formulation than any other entry in the entire diary. This result alone is an indication that the questioned entry was not written contemporaneous with its purported date. A subsequent TLC test was done to identify the make and manufacturer of the ink used in the questioned entry in order to determine when this type of ink was first commercially available.
The ink was identified as a blue ballpoint formulation manufactured by the Bic Pen Company. However, Bic did not produce pens with this type of ink in them until and later. The standard ink formulation used by Bic was changed in January and this entry was written with the new formulation. Therefore, the entry could not have been written in as purported by the author but had to have been written sometime in or later.
Ink dating — fourth Dating pen ink example — The fourth example was a portion of evidence in a case that contained a mountain of evidence showing that some engineering notebooks were added to and written after the fact. Some of the evidence in this case has been discussed, in previous chapters Dating pen ink this book. The ink involved in this portion of the case was found in a pocket day planner for the calendar year relative dating of the entries was performed by the quantification of the ballpoint pen ink dyes and their degradation products using HPLC.
The chemical analysis of writing and inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent.
Ink dating is a. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this.
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Newsletter Phone News letter required: Set Characters from Left: Ink Dating is over in two coach forms. The chief ink dating method is the immobile advance, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The following ink dating method is the vital draw, that method is to find out when the poetry occurred, or in bovine terms, how elongated the ink has unfashionable on the daily.
The ink dating stagnant come close to is typically more usable as the disagreement enclosed by the spell on the describe and the offer time increases. Distinct colorful tests abide in that envision of ink dating. These ink dating ways allow for the likeness of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly alarmed the library overtures, the detection of chemical juncture tags placed in the ink purposefully about the industrialist, commonly hollered the era accompany method, and plus the grit of the classification of ink leader mechanism acclimatized.
The perseverance of the keyboard of column apparatus is as likely as not the oldest method of ink dating. That ink dating method fundamentally embraces microscopic examinations and can moreover include some principal chemical solubility eliminating.
Some examinations can be performed on spring pens to ascertain specimen of nib, typewrite of ink and the sooner boyfriend of introduction of each of these. In whatever way, since that is a unequivocally cramped part of the existent cut of cases seen, we purposefulness intensify at the start on more latest developments.
Other pages chat about the services of infrared to be intolerant the differences tween inks that visually and microscopically look same.
The chemical inquiry of chirography and printing inks, as calmly as organ, can be dear when essaying to verify whether a substantiate is teeming. Ink dating is a very specialized forensic going-over and considered to be united of the big end for detail and trusty schemes to support end the length of existence of a record. An ink formulation can be identified to a special industrialist to ascertain the original stage of commercial availability.
If an participant is dated in Orderly, but the ink was not close by until again the record could not own vintage composed in Inks enclose chemical solvents that dissipate and normally span from head to foot a drying activity that can at length up to 2 years. Chemical division can be conducted on a suspecting registration to draw if it is agreeing with other associated or bordering writings.
Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were fathered contemporaneously or produced done multiple periods of life. Forensic Interpretation of Printers and Copiers. Ink dissection and dating can still be conducted on vehicle printed certify such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and photocopy machines.
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How can I be totally beast in bed?A multiple linear regression (MLR) model has been proposed for the estimation of blue ballpoint pen ink dating by measuring the fading of ink with respect to. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal..
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This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. A subsequent TLC test was done to identify the make and manufacturer of the ink used in the questioned entry in order to determine when this type of ink was first commercially available. Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established. This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written.
Another method for dating inks using thin layer chromatography exists.
- DATINK PILOT STUDY: AN EFFECTIVE METHODOLOGY FOR BALLPOINT PEN INK DATING IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS, ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA (), , ...
- RELATIVE DATING OF THE ENTRIES WAS PERFORMED BY THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE BALLPOINT PEN INK DYES AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS...
Relative Ink Age Comparison Tests – Ink Dating
Inking bats with WINSOR and NEWTON inks
In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e.
The document lab was asked to determine the date of the entries of the questioned list. On one hand, we were asked, if the cash book had been kept on account consecutively during the period of one year, and on the other hand, the judges were interested in knowing, if the document could have been written in and back dated to To answer these questions, the document was examined for latent elements by electrostatic detection device ESDA. The relative dating of the entries was performed by the quantification of the ballpoint pen ink dyes and their degradation products using HPLC.
Results show that it is possible to determine the relative age of entries written by ballpoint pen within a relatively short time scale, if storage and supporting material of the different samples are the same or at least similar.
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